Since the 1950s, the number of natural and man-made disasters has increased exponentially and the facility location problem has become the preferred approach for dealing with emergency humanitarian logistical problems. To deal with this challenge, an exact algorithm and a heuristic algorithm have been combined as the main approach to solving this problem. Owing to the importance that an exact algorithm holds with regard to enhancing emergency humanitarian logistical facility location problems, this paper aims to conduct a survey on the facility location problems that are related to emergency humanitarian logistics based on both data modeling types and problem types and to examine the pre- and post-disaster situations with respect to facility location, such as the location of distribution centers, warehouses, shelters, debris removal sites and medical centers. The survey will examine the four main problems highlighted in the literature review: deterministic facility location problems, dynamic facility location problems, stochastic facility location problems, and robust facility location problems. For each problem, facility location type, data modeling type, disaster type, decisions, objectives, constraints, and solution methods will be evaluated and real-world applications and case studies will then be presented. Finally, research gaps will be identified and be addressed in further research studies to develop more effective disaster relief operations.