Au Burkina Faso, plus de 330 000 enfants privés d'école

Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Burkina Faso

L'augmentation de l’insécurité et des attaques armées a entrainé la fermeture de 2024 écoles, dont plus de la moitié dans la région du Sahel, durement frappée par la violence.
Faits saillants

  • Le Burkina Faso est confronté à une crise humanitaire sans précédent liée à une augmentation soudaine de violences.
  • 1,5 million de personnes auront besoin d'assistance humanitaire.
  • Plus de 271 000 personnes ont été forcées de quitter leurs foyers, soit quatre fois plus depuis le début de l'année.
  • Plus de 95% de déplacés internes sont accueillis dans des communautés hôtes.
  • 2024 écoles sont fermées, privant ainsi plus de 330 000 enfants d'éducation.

Contexte

DÉPLACEMENTS

Les attaques armées récurrentes et l'insécurité ont maintenant déplacé plus de 170 000 personnes, soit trois fois plus qu'en janvier 2019. Depuis le début de l'année, chaque mois, 20 000 personnes en moyenne ont fui leur domicile. On estime que le nombre de personnes déplacées dépassera les 200 000 avant la fin de l'année. Plus de 95 % des personnes déplacées ont cherché refuge dans d'autres communautés et villages et ont un besoin urgent d'abris, de nourriture, d'eau et de services de santé.

Lors d'une des dernières attaques à la fin avril, des milliers de personnes ont été forcées de fuir leurs villages dans les villes d'Arbinda et de Gorgadji, au nord du pays. Les personnes nouvellement déplacées ont cherché refuge dans les localités de Barsalogho, Dablo et Pensa dans les régions du Centre-Nord, qui accueillent actuellement plus de 16 000 personnes déplacées. Beaucoup de personnes déplacées sont traumatisées et ont peur de rentrer chez elles en raison de l'insécurité et des tensions interethniques qui y règnent.

Les autorités et les organisations humanitaires s'efforcent d'accroître l'aide aux personnes déplacées. Des efforts de secours sont en cours pour améliorer la fourniture de nourriture, d'eau, de services de santé et la protection des civils touchés contre les abus et les violations. Le Conseil national d'aide d'urgence et de réhabilitation (CONASUR) dirige les opérations d'aide gouvernementale avec le soutien des ONG et des agences d'aide des Nations unies.

Les tensions et l'insécurité persistent dans de nombreuses zones du pays. Beaucoup de personnes déplacées ont besoin d’un soutien psychosocial et craignent de retourner chez elles. Les autorités, les organisations d’aide et d’autres acteurs réfléchissent à des solutions pour réinstaller les personnes déplacées dans d’autres communautés, ainsi qu’à un règlement pacifique et durable des conflits pour leur permettre de rentrer chez elles.


Insecurity in Mali's Menaka region affects humanitarian assistance

Source: Norwegian Refugee Council
Country: Mali

Between the end of July and the beginning of August 2019, humanitarian organisations recorded seven incidents of violent robberies and burglaries, intimidation and theft.
Insecurity and increased crime in the region of Menaka is having a detrimental impact on the civilian population and humanitarian organizations in the area.
With a monthly average of six incidents of robberies and burglaries of humanitarian organizations, their residents and office, the level of crime is putting the humanitarian response in jeopardy.

The circulation of weapons, the lack of operational justice and the loss of effectiveness of the patrols have led to an increase in crime targeting the civilian population and humanitarian workers in the communities of Ménaka and Tidermene. Between the end of July and the beginning of August 2019, humanitarian organisations recorded seven incidents of violent robberies and burglaries, intimidation and theft. Most of these incidents took place in the city of Menaka itself.

Repeated and unpunished aggression towards the civilian population and aid workers and the burglary of their homes and offices affects the operational capacity of humanitarian organisations, thus impeding assistance to vulnerable populations in need.

Faced with this situation, and in the absence of concrete response to the previous requests made by the organisations for increased security, the organisations active in the region urge the local, national and traditional authorities concerned, as well as civil society to take concrete actions to address the root causes and factors that promote the development of this insecurity.

In the absence of increased security, the international NGOs present in Menaka will be forced to scale back their activities. The signatory NGOs remain available to discuss with the authorities concerning the current situation of insecurity, and to support efforts of common reflections on the actions to adopt in order to guarantee a reinforced security climate for the benefit of all.

Contacts :

Fatou Konate, Advocacy Adviser, +223 94 49 97 17, fatoumata.konate@nrc.no

Angeliki Dimou, Coordinatrice Générale MDM Mali, CG.Mali@medecinsdumonde.be, +223 76402873


More than 72,000 people displaced so far this month in north-west Syria

Source: World Food Programme
Country: Syrian Arab Republic

Most of the displaced are heading towards already densely populated areas of northern Idlib governorate, with the Dana sub-district continuing to receive the biggest share.
In Numbers

590,000 displacements since 01 May

264,500 newly displaced people assisted with ready-to-eat rations since 01 May

948,000 people targeted for WFP general food assistance in August

Highlights

• The situation in north-western Syria is deteriorating rapidly, with southern Idlib and northern Hama governorates witnessing extreme levels of violence, including clashes, airstrikes and shelling.

• The recent surge in violence has spurred new waves of population displacement towards northern Idlib governorate, with more than 72,000 people displaced so far in August.

• While WFP continues to scale up its response, the volatile security situation has several times forced WFP to temporarily suspend planned distributions in some areas due to insecurity.

Situation Update

• The security situation across north-western Syria continues to deteriorate, with fierce fighting between Syrian government forces and its allies and non-state armed groups across southern Idlib and northern Hama governorates.

• On 20 August, non-state armed group forces reportedly withdrew from the strategic town of Khan Sheikhoun (Maarrat al-Nu'man district, southern Idlib governorate) after the town was surrounded by government forces. Khan Sheikhoun had been held by non-state armed group forces since 2014.

• The recent surge in violence is spurring new waves of population displacement. So far in August, more than 72,000 displacement have been reported, and as of 18 August, more than 590,000 displacements have been recorded since 01 May, according to the UNHCR-led Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM)
Cluster.

• Most of the displaced are heading towards already densely populated areas of northern Idlib governorate, with the Dana sub-district continuing to receive the biggest share of the displaced. At the IDP camps in northern Idlib governorate, camp expansions are ongoing to increase capacity as many displaced households are sheltering out in the open with no access to basic services or shelter.

• The UN Secretary-General on 20 August issued a statement strongly condemning the continued attacks on civilians and civilian infrastructure. The SecretaryGeneral urged all parties to fully respect international humanitarian law, and to uphold the Memorandum on Stabilisation of the Situation in the Idlib De-escalation Area-agreement signed by Russia and Turkey on 17 September 2018.


Record numbers of refugees and migrants arrive in Yemen amid intensifying war

Source: Mixed Migration Centre
Country: Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen

This route is already the largest mixed migration route out of East Africa. If trends continue, arrivals for 2019 could exceed the record 159,838 arrivals in Yemen in 2018.
By Danielle Botti, Melissa Phillips

Despite the ongoing war and escalating humanitarian crisis in Yemen, this year has seen a spike in the number of arrivals of East African refugees and migrants to Yemen. IOM estimates that 18,320 refugees and migrants arrived in April 2019 and 18,904 people arrived in May 2019 – representing the highest monthly arrivals figures since data became available in 2006. In total, 84,378 East Africans are estimated to have arrived in the first six months of 2019. This route is already the largest mixed migration route out of East Africa. If trends continue, arrivals for 2019 could exceed the record 159,838 refugees and migrantsestimated to have arrived in Yemen in 2018.

Many of these refugees and migrants intend to transit through Yemen en route to Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries. Ethiopians make up 90% of the arrivals into Yemen while Somalis account for around 10% of arrivals in 2019. The mixed migration flow to Yemen is largely made up of young men, however, nearly 20% are women and around 10% are children. High unemployment rates and political insecurity are major drivers for Ethiopians and Somalis to the Gulf, where they hope to find employment, better opportunities, and security. However, migrants and refugees travelling along this route face violations of their human rights at every stage of the journey, with a high risk of being trafficked, kidnapped, or dying at sea on one of the busiest maritime mixed migration routes in the world.

In addition, the fragile political situation in Yemen has opened up new avenues for smuggling operations and may lure refugees and migrants to travel with the perception of ease of movement through Yemen. In reality, the deteriorating situation in Yemen has created new loopholes for strong trafficking networks and new opportunities to exploit refugees and migrants along this route. Migrants also feel the impact of the deepening crisis in Yemen and are often impacted by the conflict and insecurity. Since 2017, Yemen’s port city of Aden has emerged as a detention hub for Ethiopian and Somali migrants and refugees. In early May 2019, around 5,000 people were known to have been detained during a peak period in detention in unstainable conditions, including in a stadium. It is unclear how the takeover of Aden in mid-August 2019 by Southern Yemen separatist forces – framed as a civil war within a civil war – will impact on migrants and refugees stranded there, or on future returns. As active fighting continues in the intensifying and complicated war in Yemen, concerns are being raised for refugees and migrants traveling through Yemen and thousands of East African migrants and refugees who remain stranded or detained in areas around Aden.

Serious protection risks at every stage of the journey

Every year, tens of thousands of Ethiopians and Somalis travel through harsh terrain in Djibouti and Puntland to reach departure areas along the coastline where they can find boats to take them to Yemen. From there, they embark on a dangerous boat journey through the Red or Arabian seas to reach points along Yemen’s coast. Although 274 deaths were recorded on the sea journey to Yemen in 2018, far more migrants are likely dying on this route every year. However, it’s when migrants and refugees arrive in Yemen that some of the most serious protection risks can occur. Arbitrary and abusive detention, trafficking and other protection risks are increasingly prevalent for migrants and refugees arriving in Yemen. Reports from Human Rights Watch and other groups also show increasing threats to migrants by trafficking and smuggling groups, lack of basic access to food, water, and medical services, and high risks of sexual violence and abuse for women. Migrants and refugees have been rounded up in camps in Yemen pending deportation, with reports that people have died in these camps. There are particular concerns for unaccompanied and separated children who may be more vulnerable to abuse as well as reports that armed groups are forcibly recruiting migrants to fight.

Migrants and refugees who make it to the Saudi border face more challenges, including dangerous and deadly border crossings, harsh detentions, and exploitation as undocumented or irregular workers. Further, in March 2017, Saudi authorities announced a crackdown on undocumented migrants, and IOM estimates that 300,000 Ethiopians had been deported back to Ethiopia by July 2019. Those who return report extreme abuses in long periods of detention before they are deported. The Saudi Arabian government also recently moved to revoke visas for Ethiopian housemaids and cancel all work visas already issued for Ethiopians. However, these moves don’t seem to deter migration on this route – estimates show that migration from the Horn of Africa to Yemen has remained close to or over 100,000 people per year since the Saudi deportations began in 2017, with record numbers arriving in the last few months

Worth the risks?

Interviews from MMC’s Mixed Migration Monitoring Mechanism Initiative (4Mi) show that many migrants and refugees are at least partially aware of the risks they face, though the dangers may be much greater than they anticipated. According to recent 4Mi data, 95% of Ethiopians interviewed[1] in East Africa before departing for Yemen felt that they were aware of the risks on the route. Even with some knowledge of the risks, the conflict in Yemen provides new dangers for refugees and migrants and an unpredictable landscape for migrants and refugees to navigate to avoid active fighting, detention, and abuse. As such, in 4Mi interviews with migrants and refugees who had arrived in Yemen in the last year[2], 79% of respondents said they would not encourage others to migrate after their experience traveling along this route.

In spite of these brutal conditions in Yemen and Saudi Arabia, the arrival of (a majority of Ethiopian) migrants and refugees to Yemen will likely continue. Interviews with refugees and migrants in Djibouti and Somalia show that perceived economic opportunities in Saudi Arabia outweigh the risks of the journey, and they feel that migration may be their only chance for a better life. Recent data from 4Mi shows that 94% of Ethiopians interviewed in Somalia and Djibouti were moving to find a better job and of those, 99% hoped to make it to Gulf countries, stating the better chance of finding a job. With a per capita income of $783 and a high (17.5%) unemployment rate, Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world. Hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians have over the years left the country in search of economic opportunities, many joining mixed migration flows to Saudi Arabia and the Gulf.

The importance of remittances for Ethiopian and Somali households and communities, continued politicalunrest in the region, and the well-established migration patterns of East Africans traveling to the Gulf for work will continue to drive people to embark on the route to Yemen. 4Mi data shows that many refugees and migrants interviewed on this route (75%) indicated that their decision to leave was influenced by friends and family abroad or returning migrants. Although the information may not be fully accurate, the guidance migrants and refugees receive from their social networks can influence decisions, and inform how they plan their trip. The belief that they will find work in the Gulf, the short duration of the journey and relatively cheap cost of the trip (the average cost from Ethiopia to Saudi Arabia is less than 600 USD) continues to make this route popular for migrants and refugees from East Africa.

What next?

How the ongoing conflict in Yemen will impact future mixed migration through the country remains to be fully understood. The influx of people over the last few months indicates that mixed migration from East Africa to Yemen (and onwards to Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries) will continue even if the war intensifies. Despite the risks, the potential opportunities for a better life push people to embark on this route, now more than ever. Further, more restrictions on legal options for work could actually increase mixed migration along this route, as recent trends suggest.

Over the next year, challenging political situations and large populations of internally displaced people in Ethiopia and Somalia could further stress limited services and economic opportunities at home, pushing more people to leave in search of jobs and security. With a lack of viable legal options, many migrants and refugees set on finding work in Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries will find other and often unsafe routes to travel. The deteriorating situation in Yemen will continue to create dangerous situations for migrants and refugees, however traveling through Yemen to reach Saudi Arabia will likely remain a dominant route in the months and years to come.

[1] Analysis of 323 Ethiopians interviewed in Djibouti, Somaliland, and Puntland since January 2017.

[2] 33 interviewees (6 Somalis, 1 Djiboutian and 26 Ethiopians) interviewed between September 2018 and May 2019.


The disaster riskscape across Asia-Pacific

Source: UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
Country: Indonesia, Japan, Marshall Islands, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Tonga, World

The region faces a daunting spectrum of natural hazards. ESCAP reports that these are closely linked to inequality and poverty, leading to a vicious downward cycle.
The Asia-Pacific region faces a daunting spectrum of natural hazards. Indeed, many countries could be reaching a tipping point beyond which disaster risk, fuelled by climate change, exceeds their capacity to respond.

This Asia-Pacific Disaster Report 2019 shows how these disasters are closely linked to inequality and poverty, each feeding on the other and leading to a vicious downward cycle. It assesses the scale of losses across the disaster ‘riskscape’ and estimates the amounts that countries would need to invest to outpace the growth of disaster risk. It shows the negative effects of disasters on economies in the region and where investments are more likely to make the biggest difference.

While this will require significant additional finance, the report shows the amounts are small compared to the amounts that countries in the region are currently losing due to disasters. The report demonstrates how countries can maximize the impacts of their investments by implementing a comprehensive portfolio of sectoral investments and policies that jointly address poverty, inequality and disaster risk. It showcases examples from the region of innovative pro‑poor disaster risk reduction measures and risk-informed social policies that are breaking the links between poverty, inequality and disasters. Similarly, it explores how emerging technologies such as big data and digital identities can be used to ensure the poorest and most vulnerable groups are included in these policy interventions.

Ultimately, the report argues that countries will have to invest more in the measures appropriate to their own circumstances, but that they should also work more closely together to unlock the potential of regional cooperation.


Webinar brings humanitarian logistics community together to discuss protection challenges

On 3rd July, the much-anticipated webinar titled Exploring protection challenges in humanitarian logistics jointly organised by HLA and the International Association of Professionals in Humanitarian Assistance and Protection (PHAP) took place. The well-attended event hosted from Geneva brought together professionals in the humanitarian logistics community and other areas of humanitarian practice who are based in some dozens of countries.

This webinar was a timely event that helped clarify some key questions humanitarian logisticians have about ensuring and safeguarding protection during response. PHAP Executive Director Angharad Laing co-hosted the webinar with HLA Chief Executive George Fenton, which was streamed via the PHAP webinar platform, with many others also listening in via YouTube.

The idea that the issue of protection in humanitarian logistics is underexplored across the sector, set off the discussions with George asking the ultimate question if the proliferation of humanitarian responses in recent years have in fact led to enhanced safety and security for the communities at risk. He noted that protection in logistics practice should indeed reflect the right capacity and a common understanding between humanitarian response actors and of course the affected communities, and that enhancing protection requires engagement between these communities. George further noted that the tools to aid these protection mechanisms require critical and continuous development, and as such the humanitarian logistics community therefore has a duty to recognise these challenges and address them accordingly.

Survey results

Findings from the pre-event survey of which 172 responses were received from across 45 countries were presented by Angharad prior to the open discussion and revealed that most respondents had in fact witnessed some sort of protection issue during the course of their work. The most common were issues related to logisticians not being sufficiently prepared to handle protection issues they were confronted with, which more than a majority of respondents revealed that they had in fact witnessed in the field. There were also various levels of reports of abuse with the procurement, recruitment, transportation, distribution of aid, and sexual exploitation and abuse.  Some respondents cited lack of awareness of principles and guidelines as a cause for the lack of capacity to deal with the observed protection issues.

Overall, corruption in procurement was highlighted, with the case of kickbacks in South Sudan cited by a respondent, and in Somalia collusion between logisticians and suppliers that divert aid elsewhere than the intended targets.  Recipients at risk from robberies by armed gangs following distribution and militia attacks during distribution itself were also cited. In the area of recruitment, child labour was mentioned as an observed problem, especially from sub-contracts. The area of safety for logistics staff themselves also came up and may require a separate webinar to effectively interrogate. Finally, the gap in existing guidance to deal with protection issues as a result of not being implemented, and not being localised enough to deal with contextual nuances was also highlighted.

Summary of discussions

The esteemed panel of facilitators who shared valuable insights from their considerable collective experience and perspectives with the audience consisted of Will Holden, Managing Director of the Emergency Logistics Team, HLA’s Africa Regional Representative Tikhwi Muyundo, Supply Chain and Communications Consultant Valerie Craigie, and former Head of the Protection Division of ICRC Pierre Gentile.

According to Will, there was a sea change in recent years regarding the interactions between the programs and support (logistics) functions of most humanitarian responses which is causing gaps in adequately dealing with protection issues as a result of the perceived separation. He noted further that sufficient duty of care must be in place for staff of humanitarian logistics organisations during the planning and implementation of the distribution, and also for the affected communities in particular the most vulnerable (i.e. women and children). In terms of the capacity of humanitarian logistician staff, Will called for more training to give logistics staff, at minimum, some basic understanding of what the protection concerns are and how to deal with them, and said this was a clear gap as their role is so key and fundamental to any humanitarian response.

Tikhwi, on the other hand, sharing first-hand experience from countries such as Somalia and Afghanistan, was of the view that most organizations would have mechanisms in place to identify and of course address the most predictable of protection challenges. She gave a whole range of such issues including harm from sub-contractors who are transporting or distributing on the ground. She also mentioned improper management of distribution centers, poor commodity management and certification, cultural insensitivities, as well as staff misconduct and the deployment of untrained staff, as factors that can result in affected communities suffering harm.

A specific practical example shared was of extreme protection implications where violence and demonstrations occur in opposition to unwanted goods making their way into certain communities where they are prohibited resulting from unsolicited donations.

Valerie shared some insights on gender-based violence (GBV) from interviews and interactions with humanitarian logisticians from camps in Liberia, Sudan and Greece in particular.  She tackled the issue of making these spaces safe for all, especially the vulnerable, and called for the immediate needs of these communities to be factored in during the response. She noted that while the guidelines call for communications, multisectoral approach, and shared learning in avoiding or dealing with these issues, it just does not happen in practice, leading to the observed protection challenges. She provided a good practice case study from Ethiopia where a logistician had a key role to play in planning the structure of the camp that made it more liveable and safer for residents.

Pierre on his part, gave valuable insights from both the field and head office (Geneva) experience. He identified three categories of note – the need for and adherence to organizational code of conducts, the attention to the principle of do no harm, and the capacity and ability to address directly or refer the abuse that is witnessed. He (as well as most of the other facilitators) noted the availability of a variety of guidance and guidelines to aid in the address of these incidents of protection challenges, though there are certainly issues with how they are utilized or implemented.

Key highlights

  • Guidelines need to be tailored in order to take into consideration local norms and cultures.
  • Too many strategies for addressing different issues targeted at the different groups of humanitarian actors (logisticians for example) can present problems for understanding and adherence. As such, an integrated approach is more useful.
  • There should be consistent identification and awareness of the particular types of protections issues that are prevalent in each area in order to plan for and address them effectively.
  • As humanitarian logisticians are not expected to be protection experts, there should be clear referral mechanisms in place for them to direct concerns to the appropriate channels to be addressed.
  • Some good practices are for staff to know the procedures and follow them, for example vetting suppliers, and for aid agencies to have an integrated approach to train and retrain staff which includes community leaders and involves security forces.
  • There is a need to draw from lessons learned in the past and apply those to mitigate these preventable risks to affected communities.
  • Have a code of conduct in place, which is well understood by all staff, both direct and sub-contractors (suppliers), and to have sanctions in place for misconduct.
  • Future efforts regarding this conversation should note that while a lot of guidance is already available, they may not necessarily be understood or followed by field logistician staff, who are often sub-contractors.

In conclusion, there was the agreement that the logistics function is at the heart of humanitarian response, and while this webinar’s discussion is a useful first step, the conversation does not end here and must be taken forward. As such, HLA and PHAP is looking forward to further collaboration that take these recommendations and takeaways forward through further discussions.

 “HLA should be commended for raising this vital issue and I look forward to future collaborations that explore this further.” Angharad Laing